OSCOLA Referencing Guide - UK Essays.
A way to shorten second or subsequent references you have already used in your footnote references is to use either ibid (same as last entry) or op. cit. (as previously cited). Use ibid when two references in a row are from the same source. Use op. cit. when you have already given full details of that source in an earlier note. Examples. 1.
For example: 1. Barsby, 99-101. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid., 97. Although it is becoming less common, you may encounter the abbreviation id. used in a way similar to ibid. The abbreviation id. stands for idem, which means “the same person.” It is used in place of ibid. when the same author is cited but not the same page number. In such instances, ibid. is only used to repeat the preceding citation.
Footnotes. A footnote is a piece of text which, for some reason, cannot be accommodated within the main body of the document and which is therefore placed elsewhere. It is usual, and preferable, to place footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they are referred to, but this usually requires a great deal of fiddling about, unless you are lucky enough to have a word processor which arranges.
A number in superscript format, placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant footnote. Citations are numbered sequentially in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered footnote containing publication information about the source cited. The notes generally serve two purposes: to cite sources and to make cross-references to previous notes.
If, for example, you are referencing something like The Effects of Factory-Produced Emissions on the Greater Nile Watershed: An Environmental Study, that's a long title to have to refer to again and again. Instead, you can reference the title in a footnote, and then use “ibid” in future footnotes. If you move to a new location in the text, you can alert your readers with “Ibid (page 23.
Ibid, pp. 90-2. All the references marked Ibid. are from the same source. Note: “Pernoud, Retrial” is the abbreviated form that Warner uses in the notes for Regine Pernoud’s The Retrial of Joan of Arc: The Evidence at the Trial for Her Rehabilitation. Ibid, italicized when referred to as a word, is not italicized in use. Ibid is pronounced with short i in both syllables. The i in idem is.
The terms ibid. and op. cit. are used to avoid repeating the same reference details in-text, i.e., the body of your text and in your reference list. Ibid. is Latin for ibidem, which means 'in the same place'. You can use ibid. when your next citation is the same as the last one.